"In Shannon's model a receiver interprets information completely independently of how the sender intends it." #readingToday
A crucially important principle embodied in Shannon's model is that a receiver interprets information is completely independently of how the sender intends it. The receiver is not guaranteed to even receive the message. There is no determinism involved, no intrinsic, inevitable meaning . The receiver might not recognize the symbols correctly, or the symbols could have become distorted by noise in the channel, flipping bits or distorting one symbol into another.
In Search of Certainty, Mark Burgess, 2013